Zoology In A Nutshell

Table 1.1 classification of Human body

Taxon

Grouping

Characterstics

Kingdom

Animalia

Cells having a visible nucleus but lacking walls, plastids, and photosynthetic pigments.

Phylum

Chordate

Notochord; dorsal hollow nerve cord ; pharyngeal pouches.

Subphylum

Vertabrata

Cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton ; vertebral column

Class

Mammalian

Hair; mammary glands; three auditory ossicles ; attached placenta; muscular diaphragm.

Order

Primates

Prehensile hands with digits modified for grasping ;large brains

Family

 

Genus

 

 

Species

Hominidate

 

Homo

 

 

Sapiens 

 

Large, well –developed cerebrum; flattened face; bipedal posture and locomotion; well-developed vocal structure; opposable thumb.

 

Table 1.2 serous membranes and their locations

Cavity

Serous membrane

Location

Thoracic

Visceral pleura

 

 

Parietal pleura

 

 

Visceral pericardium

( epicardium)

 

parietal pericardium

Adhering to outer surface of lungs

 

Lining thoracic walls and thoracic surface of diaphragm.

Covering outer surface of heart.

 

Durable covering surrounding heart

 

Abdominopelvic

Visceral peritoneum

 


Parietal peritoneum

 


Mesentery

Covering abdominal viscera

 

Lining abdominal wall

 

Double fold of peritoneum connecting parietal to visceral peritoneum.

 

Table 1.3 commonly used descriptive and directional terms.

Term

Definition

Example

Inferior (cranial)

Toward the top; toward the head

The thorax is superior to the abdomen.

Inferior ( caudal)

Away from the head; toward the bottom

The legs are inferior to the trunk.

Anterior (ventral)

Toward the front

The navel is on the anterior side of the body.

Posterior (dorsal)

Toward the back

The kidneys are posterior to the intestines.

Medial

Toward the midline of the body

The heart is medial to the lungs.

Lateral

Toward the side of the body

The ears are lareral to the head.

Internal (deep)

Away from the surface of the body

The brain is internal to the cranium.

External (superficial)

Toward the surface of the body

The skin is external to the muscles.

proximal

Toward the main mass of the body

The knee is proximal to the foot.

Distal

Away from themain mass of the body.

The hand is distal to the elbow.

visceral

Related to internal organs

The lungs are covered by a thin membrane called the visceral pleura.

Parietal

Related to the body walls

The parietal pleura is the inside lining of the thoracic cavity.

 

Table 1.4 System, organs & their function

System

Principal organs

Functions

Circulatory system

Heart, blood vessels, spleen, lymphatics

Thansports materials via blood ; regulates acid-base balance; protects against disease and fluid loss

Respiratory system

Nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, lungs

Supplies O2 to the blood and eliminates CO2 : helps regulate acid base balance

Digestive system

Tongue, teeth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine and large intestine ; liver and pancreas

Processes ingested foods for cellular use; eliminates undiested wastes

Urinary system

Kidney, urinary bladder, ureters, urethra

Filters blood; regulates chemical composition, fluid volume, and electrolyte balance of blood.

Skeletal system

Bones, cartilage, joints, and ligaments

Supports, protects, andpermits body movement; sites of hemopoiesis (manufacture of blood cells)

Muscular system

Muscles and tendons

Causes body movement; maintains posture, produces body heat.

Nervous system

Brain, spinal cord., nerves, sense organs

Responds to environmentnal changes; enables reasoning and memory ; regulates body activities

Endocrine system

Endocrine glands (pituitary gland, thymus, pancreas, adrenal glands, gonads, etc)

Chemically controls andintegrates many body activities

Reproductive system

Gonads and genital organs

Produces gametes and sex hormones; reproduces the organism.

 

Table 2.1 chemical composition of the body                                          

Chemical elements

% body composition

Carbon (C) Nitrogen(N) Oxygen (O) hydrogen (H)

96%

Calcium(Ca) Phosphorus(P)Potassium(K) sulfur(S)

3%

Iron (Fe) Chlorine (Cl) Iodine(I) Sodium (Na)

  Trace

 

Table 2.2 subatomic particles, weights, and charges

Particle (symbol)

Weight (approximate)

Charge

Proton (P+)

1

+1

Neutron (n0)

1

0

Electron (e-)

1/1840

-1

 

 Table 2.3 the molecular weight of water, carbon dioxide, and glucose

Water (H2O)

Atomic weight of H = 1            2 × 1 = 2

Atomic weight of O = 16          1 × 16 =16

                                                       MW =18

 

 

Carbon dioxide (CO2)

Atomic weight of C = 12          1× 12 = 12

Atomic weight of O = 16          2 × 16= 32

                                                      MW= 44

 

 

Glucose (C6 H12O6)

Atomic weight of C = 12          6× 12 =72

Atomic weight of H = 1            12× 1=12

Atomic weight of O =16           6× 16 = 96

                                                    MW =180

 

Table 2.4 buffer systems and their locations

Bicarbonate buffer

Blood, extra cellular fluid (most easily adjusted body buffer)

Phosphate buffer

Kidneys, intracellular fluid

Protein buffer

All tissues (most plentiful body buffer)

 

Table 2.5 organic compounds and examples

Carbohydrates

Glucose, cellulose, glycogen, starch

Lipids

Phospholipids, steroids, prostaglandins

Proteins

Enzymes, insulin, albumin, hemoglobin,

Nucleic acids

DNA, RNA

 

Table 2.6 the 20 amino acids

Nonpolar

Polar, uncharged

Polar, charged

Glycine (Gly)

Serine (Ser)

Lysine (Lys)

Alalnine (Ala)

Threonine (Thr)

Arginine (Arg)

Valine (Val)

Asparagines (Asn)

Histidine (His)

Leucine (Leu)

Glutamine (Gln)

Aspartic acid (Asp)

Isoleucine (Lle)

Tyrosine (Tyr)

Glutamic acid (Glu)

Methionine (Met)

Cysteine (Cys)

 

Proline  (Pro)

 

 

Phenylalanine (Phe)

 

 

Tryprophan (Trp)

 

 

 

 Table 2.7 functions of proteins and examples

Function of properties

Examples

Enzyme

Trypsin, chymotrypsin, sucrase, amylase

Transport

Hemoglobin, myoglobin

Motion

Actin, myosin, tubulin

Structural

Collagen, elastin

Immunity

Antibodies (immunoglobulins)

Neural communication

Endorphins, rhodopsin (pigment for light reception  in the eye.

Intercellular messenger

hormones

insulin, glucagons, growth

 

 

Table 3.1 organelles of eukaryotic cells

Organelle

Structure

Function

Nucleus

Round or oval organelle; contains nucleolus and is surrounded by nuclear membrane; contains DNA organized in to chromosomes

Storageof genrtic material control center for al cellular activities

Nucleolus

Round mass of RNA within nucleus

Center for organizing robosomes and other products with RNA

Robosomes

Granular particles composed of proteins

Synthesis of proteins

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

Membranous network through cytoplasm; continuous with cell and nuclear membranes

 

Rough ER

Membranous network with attached ribosomes

Synthesis of proteins for use outside a cell

Smooth ER

Lacking ribosomes

Steroid syntjhesis ;intercellular transportl detoxifincation

Golgi apparatus (complex)

Stacked membranes and vessels (cisternae)

Packaging gof proteins produced t rough ER; formation of secretory vesicles and lysosome.

mitochondria

Rodlike or ovqaal organelles; membrane forms folds called crisate

ATP production (through Krebs cycle andoxidative phosphorylation)

Lysosomes

Dense vesicles filled with enzymes

Breakdown fo worn cellular components or engulfed particles

Secretory vessicles

Membrane-bound sacs

Storage fo proteins andother synthesized material destined for secretion 

Microtubules

Long, hollow structures; made of polymerized tubulin (protein )

Structural support ; involvedin cell divisions, cell movementl, and transport

Microfilaments

Long, solid fibers; made of polymerized actin (protein )

Structural support; involved in cell movement

centrioles

Two short rods or granules, composed of nine sets of three fused microtubules; located near nucleus

Involved in cell division ; movement of chromolsomes during mitosis

 

Table 3.2 kinds of cancer and frequency of occurrence

Lung cancer

20% of all cancers in men; 11% in women

Breast cancer

28% of all cancers in women

Prostate cancer

21% of all cancers in men

Skin cancer (melanoma)

3% of all cancers in both men and women

Colon /rectal cancer

15% of all cancers in both men and women

Ovarian cancer

4% of all cancers in women

Uterine cancer

9% of all cancers in women

Leukemia / lymphomas

17% of all cancers in men, 7% in women

 

Table 4.1 classification of simple epithelial tissue

Type

Structure and function

Location

Simple squamous epithelium

Single layer of flattened, tightly bound cells; diffusion and filtration

Forming capillary walls ; lin8ing air sacs (alveoli) of lungs : covering visceral organs lini9ng body cavities

Simple cuboidal epithelium

Single layer of cube shaped cells excretion, secretion, or absorption

Covering surface of ovaries; lining kidney tubules salivary ducts and pancreatic ducts

Simple columnar epithelium

Single layer of non ciliated column shaped cells; protection secretion and absorption

Lining digestive tract, gallbladder, and excretory ducts of some glands

Simple ciliated columnar epithelium

Single layer of ciliated column shaped cells transport role through ciliary’s motion

Lining uterine (fallopian) tubes and limited areas fo respiratory tract

Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium

Single layer of ciliated, irregularly shaped cells protection secretion ciliary motion

Lining respiratory passageways and auditory ( Eustachian ) tubes

 

Table 4.2 classification of stratified epithelial tissue

Type

Structure and function

Location

Stratified squamous epithelium ( keratinized)

Multilayered, contains keratin (see problem 4.8 outer layers flattened and dead; protection

Epidermis of the skin

Stratified squamous epithelium (non keratinized)

Multilayered, lacks keratin, outer layers moistened and alive; protection and pliability

Linings of oral and nasal cavities, esophagus, vagina, and anal canal

Stratified cuboidal epithelium

Usually two layers of cube shaped cells; strengthening of luminal walls

Ducts of alter sweat glands, salivary glands, and pancreas

Transitional epithelium

Numerous layers of rounded nonkeratinized cells; distension

Lining urinary bladder and portions of ureters and urethra

 

Table 4.3 structural classification of exocrine glands

S

I

M

P

L

E

 

Type

Function

Examples

Unicellular glands

Protect andlubricate

Goblet cells

Tubular glands

Aid digestion

Intestinal glands

Branched tubular glands

Protect; aid digestion 

Uterine glands; gastric glands

Coiled tubular glands

Regulate temperature

Eccrine sweat glands

Acinar glands

Provide additive to spermatozoa

Seminal vesicles

 

Branched acinar glands

Condition skin

Swbaceous glands

Tubular glands

Lubricate male urethra; aid digestion

Bulbourethral gland; liver

Acinar glands

Provide infant nutrition ; aid digestion

Mammary gland , salivary glands (submadibular and sublingual)

Tubuloacinar glands

Aid digestion

Salivary gland ( paratiod); pancreas

 

Table 4.4 secretory classification of exocrine glands

Type

Function

Examples

Merocrine

Anchored cell secretes water; regulates temperature, aids digestion

Salivary and pancreatic glands, certain sweat glands

Apocrine

Portion of secretory cell and secretion are discharged; provides nourishment to infant, assists in regulating temperature

Mammary glands, certain sweat glands

Holocrine

Entire secretory cell with enclosed  secretion is discharged ; conditions skin

Sebaceous glands of skin

 

Table 4.5 classification of connective tissue

Tissue type

Cells

Matrix

Function

Location

Loose ( areolar)

Fibroblasts mast cells

Collagenous  fibers; elastin

Binding and packing ; protection and nourishment; holds fluids; secretes heparin

Deep to skin ; surrounding musclels, vessels, and organs

Dense fibrous

Fibroblasts

Densly paked collagenous fibers

Strong, flexble

Tendons, ligaments

Elastic

Fibroblasts

Elastin fibers

Flexibility and distensibility

Arteries, larynz, trachea, bronchi

Reticular

Phagocytes

Reticular fibers In jelly like matrix

Performs phagocytic function

Liver, spleenl lymph nods  bone marrow

Adipose

Adipocytes

Very little

Stores lipids

Hypodermis, surrounding organs

Hyaline

Chondrocytes

Fine collagenous fibers

Covers and protects bones; precursor to bone; support

Joints, trachea, nose, costal, cartilage

Fibro cartilage

chondrocytes

Dense collagenous fibers

With stands tension and compression

Knee joint, intervertebral discs, symphysis, pubis

elastic

Chondrocytes

Collagenous fibers; elastin

Flexible strength

Outer ear, larynm, auditory canal

Spongy bone

Osteocytes

Collagenous fibers; calcium carbonate

Light, strong, internal support

Interior of bones

Compact bone

osteocytes

Collagenous fibers

Strong support

Exterior of bones

Blood

Erythrocytes, leukocytes, thrombocytes (platelets)

Blood plasma

Conduction of nutrients and wastes

Circulatory system

 

Table 4.6 some specialized cells of connective tissue

 

Cell type

Description

Location

Product

Fibroblast

Large irregularly shaped cell

Throughput connective tissue proper

Collagenous, elastic, and reticular fibers

Reticular cell

Highly branched, interwoven cell

Reticular connective tissue; lymphoid organs

Phagocytes

Mast cell

Round, resembling  a basophil

Loose connective tissue; surrounding blood vessels

Heparin (an anticoagulant)

Chondrocyte

Large ovoid cell

Cartilage tissue

Cartilaginous matrix

Osteocyte

Small ovoid cell

Bone tissue

Solid matrix

 

Table 4.7 a comparison of the three types of muscle tissue

 

Type

Location

Structure and function

Smooth muscle

Walls of hollow internal organs

Elongated, spindle-shaped fiber with single nucleus; slow involuntary movements  of internal organs.

Cardiac muscle

Wall of heart

Branched, striated fiber with single nucleus and intercalated discs; rapid involuntary rhythmic contractions

Skeletal muscle

Spanning joints of skeleton via tendons

Multinucleated, striated, cylindrical fiber that occurs in fascicule (slender bundles ); rapid in voluntary of voluntary movement of joints of skeleton

 

Table 4.8 structure and function of neuroglia

Types

Structure

Function

Astrocytes

Stellate fwith numerous processes

Form structural support between capillaries amd neurons within the CNS ; contribute to blood-brain barrier

Oligodendrocytes

Similar to astrocytes but with shorter and fewer processes

Form myelin in CNS; guide development of neurons within the CNS

microglia

Minute cells with few short processes

Phagocytize pathogens and cellular debris within CNS

Ependymal cells

Columnar cells that may have ciliated free surfaces

Line ventricles and central canal within CNS where cerebrospinal fluid is circulated by ciliary motion

Ganglionic gliocytes (satellite cells)

Small, flattened cells

Support ganglia within PNS

Neurolemmocytes (schwann cells)

Flattened cells arranged in series around axons of dendrites

Form myelin within PNS

 

Table 5.1  layers of the epidermis

Stratum (layer)

Characteristics

Stratum disjunction

Outermost layer of stratum corneum that continuously sloughs off in microscopic pieces

Stratum corneum

Several layers of keratinized corneum; a collagenous matrix composed of the products of dead cells

Stratum lucidum

Thin, clear layer present in the thcich skin  of the palms and soles; no remaining living cells .

Stratum graanulosum

One or more layers of granular cells with shriveled nuclei; contains keratin

Stratum spinosum (part of stratum germinativum)

Several layers of cells with large, oval m, centrally located nuclei and spiny processes; limited mitosis; most cells dying and being moved toward surface

Stratum basale (part of stratum germinativum)

Single layer of well-nourished cells contacting the basement membrane and undergoing continuous mitosis; contains melanocytes

 

Table 5.2 cutaneous sensory receptors

Receptor

Function

Corpuscles of touch (meissners corpuscles )

Detect light motion against the skin

Free nerve endings

Detect changes in temperature; respond to tissue trauma (pain receptors)

Root hair plexuses

Detect movements of hair

Lamellated (pacinian) corpuscles

Detect deep pressure, high frequency vibration

Organs of ruffini

Detect deep pressure, stretch

Bulbs of krause

Detect light pressure, low-frequency vibration

 

Table 5.3 summary of the physiology of the skin

Function

Site

Comments

Dehydration

Epidermis

Stratification  forms dense barrier; sebum provi8des lily fibers; keratin foughens epidermis; basement membrane seals epidermis

Mechanical injury

Epidermis

Stratification forms dense barrier; cornificatio of exposed layer; formation fo calluses in response to friction; kerati toughens epidermis

Pathogens

Epidermis

Stratification forms nearly impenetrable barrier; sebum is acidic (Ph-4-6.8) an dantiseptic, and lipid composition keeps epidermis from cracking ; rapid fate of mitosis and shedding of cells from outer layer minimize entry fo pathogens

Jutraviolet (UV) light

Epidermis

Stratification forms dense barrier; scalp hair disperses light; melanin within melanocytes absorbs solar radiation

Blood loss

Epidermis and dermis

Stratification forms dense baffier; process of wound healing (dermal vasoconstriction , blood coagulation, temporary scab, collagenous scar tissue)

Synthesis

Epidermis and dermis

Keratin, melanin, and carotene syntehesized in epidermis; deermis contains dehydrocholesterol, from which it synthesizes vitamin D  in the presence of UV light

Temperature regulation

Dermis and hypodermis

Cooling through vasodialatio and sweating; warming through vasoconstriction and shivering ; insulation provided by lipid content of hypodermis

Absorption

Epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis

Limited by protective barriers, but some cutaneous absorption of O2 ; CO2; fat soluble vitamins (A,D, E, and K) certain steroid hormones (cortisol); and certain toxic substances (insecticides)

Elimination of wastes

Epidermis and dermis

Excessive water salt (NaCL) metabolic wastes (urea, uric acid )

Sensory reception

Epidermis, dermis , and hypodermis

Lower layers of epidermis contain free nerve endings, responsive to temperature and pain; dermis contains corpuscles fo touch, responsive to touch, and lamellated sorpuscles, responsive to deep pressure; dermis and hypodermis contain bulbs of Krause and organs of ruffini, responsive to pressure and stretch

 

Table 6.1 classification of the bones of the adult skeleton

Axial skeleton

Appendicular skeleton

Skull -22 bones    auditory ossicles-6

                              bones

14 facial bones     malleus (2)

maxilla (2)             incus (2)

palatine bone(2)    stapes (2)

zygomatic bone (2)

lacrimal bone (2)   hyoid -1bone

nasal bone (2)      

vomer (1)              vertebral column-26bones

inferior nasal        cervical vertebra(7)

concha (2)            thoracic vertebra(12)

mandible (1)         lumber vertebra (5)

                             sacrum (1) (5 fused

                              bones )

8 cranial bones     coccyx (1) (3 to 5

                              fused bones )

frontal bone (1)     

parietal bone (2)     Rib cage -25 bones

occipital bone (1)    rib (24)

temporal bone (2)    sternum (1)

sphenoid bone (1)   

ethmoid bone  (1)

Pectoral girdle -4bones

Scapula (2)

Clavicle (2)

 

Upper extremities -60 bones

Humerus (2)         carpal bone (16)

Radius (2)             metacarpal bone

                              (10)

ulna (2)                   phalanx (28)

pelvic girdle -2 bones

os coxae (2) (each contains 3 fused bones )

femur (2)          talsal bone (14)

tibia (2)             metatarsal bone (10)

fibula (2)            phalanx (28)

patella (2)          

 

 

Table 6.2 surface features of bones

Surface feature

Definition and example

Articulating surfaces

Condyle

Large, rounded articulating surface (occipital condyle of the occipital bone )

Head

Prominent, rounded articulating end of bone (head of the femur)

facet

Flattened or shallow articulating surface (costal facet of a thoracic vertebra)

Non articulating prominences

Process

Any bony extension (mastoid process of the temporal bone)

Tubercle

Small, rounded process (greater tubercle of the humerus)

Tuberosity

Large, roughened process (radial tuberosity of the radius )

Trochanter

Massive process found lony on the femur (greater trochanter of the femur)

Spine

Sharp, slender process (spine of the scapula)

Crest

Narrow, fidgelike projection ( iliac crest of the os coxae)

Epicondyle

Projection above a condyle (medical epicondyle of the femur )

Depression and openings

Fossa

Shallow depression (mandibular fossa of the temporal bone )

Sulcus

Groove that accommodates a vessel, nerve, or tendon (intertubercualr sulcus of the humerus)

Fissure

Narrow, slitlike opening (superior orbital fissure of the sphenoid bone )

Meatus, of canal

Tubelike passageway (external acoustic meatus of the temporal bone

Alveolus

Deep pit or socket (maxillary alveoli for teeth)

Foramen(pl., foramina)

Rounded opening through a bone (foramen magnum of the occipital bone)

Sinus

Cavity of hollow space (frontal sinus of the frontal bone)

Fovea

Small pit or depression (fovea capitis femoris of the femur)

 

Table 6.3 principal foramina of the skull

Foramen

Location

Structures transmitted

Carotid canal

Petrous part of temporal bone

Internal carotid artery and sympathetic nerves

Greater palatine foramen

Palatine bone of hard palate

Greater palatine nerve and descending palatine vessels

Hypoglossal foramen/cannal

Anterolateral edge fo occipital condyle

Hypoglossal verve and branch of ascending pharyngeal artery

Incisive foramen

Hard palate, posterior to incisor teeth

Nasopalatine nerve and branches of descending palatine vessels

Inferior orbital fissure

Between maxilla and greater wing of sphenoid bone

Maxillary nerve of trigeminals cranial nerve, zygomatic nerve, and infraorbital vessels

Infraorbital foramen

Anterior surface of maxilla, inferior to orbit

Infraorbital nerve and artery

Jugular foramen

Between petrous part of temporal and occipital bones, posterior to carotid canal

Internal jugular vein; vagus glossopharyngeal, and accessory nerves

Foramen lacerum

Between petrous part of temporal and sphenoid bones

Branches of ascending pharyngeal artery and internal carotid artery

Lesser palatine foramen

Hard palate, posterior to greater palatine foramen

Lesser palatine verves

Foramen magnum

Occipital bone

Union of medulla oblongata and spinal cord; accessory nerves vertebral and spinal arteries

Mandibular foramen

Medial ramus of mandible

Inferior alveolar nerve and vessels

Mental foramen

Below second premolar on lateral side of mandible

Mental nerve and vessels

Nasolacrimal canal

Lacrimal bone

Nasolacrimal ( tear duct)

Olfactory foramen

Cribrifrom plate of ethmoid bone

Olfactory nerves

Optic foramen

Back of orbit in lesser wing of sphenoid bone

Optic nerve and ophthalmic artery

Foramen ovale

Greater wing of sphenoid bone

Mandubular berve fo trigeminal cranial nerve

Foramen rotundum

Body of sphenoid bone

Maxillary nerve of trigeminal cranial nerve

Foramen spinosum

Posterior angle of sphenoid bone

Middle meningeal vessels

Stylomastoid foramen

Between styloid and mastoid process of tempral bone

Facial nerve andstylomastoid artery

Superior orbital fissure

Between greater and lesser wings fo sphenoid bone

Oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens cranial nerves ; ophthalmic nerve of trigeminal cranial nerve

Supreorbital foramen

Supraorbital ridge of orbit

Supraorbital nerve and artery

Zygomaticofacial foramen

Anterolateral surface of zytgomatic bone

Zygomaticofcial nerve and vessels

 

Table 6.4 a compoarison of the male and female pelvic girdles

Characteristic

Male pelvis

Female pelvis

General appearance

More massive; prominent  processes

More delicate; processes not as prominent

Anterior superior iliac spines

Closer together

Wider apart

Pelvic inlet

Heart-shaped

Round or oval

Pelvic outlet

narrower

Wider

Obturator foramen

oval

Triangular

Symphysis pubis

Deeper, longer

Shallower, shorter

Pubic arch

Acute (less than 900)

Obtuse (greater than 900)

 

Table 6.5 articulations of the body

Classification

Structure

Movements

Examples

Fibrous joints

Articulating bnes joined by fibrous connective tissue

 

 

Sutures

Frequently serrated edges of articulating bones separated by thin layer of fibrous tissue

None

Sutures of skull

syndesmoses

Articulating bones bound by interosseous

Slightly movable

Joints between tibiafibula and radius-ulna

Gomphoses

Teeth bound in to alveoli of bone

None

Teeth secured in to alveoli (sockets)

Cartilaginous joints

Articulating bones joined by fibrocartilage or hyaline cartilage

 

 

Symphyses

Articulating bones separated by pad of fibro cartilage

Slightly movable

Intervertebral joints; symphysis pubis and sacroiliac joint

synchondroses

Mitotically active hyaline cartilage between bones

None

Epiphyseal plates within long bones

Synovial joints

Joint capsile containing synovial membrane and synovial fluid

Freely movable

 

Gliding

Flattened or slightly curved articulating surfaces

Sliding

Intercarpal and interarsal joints

Hinge

Concave surface of one bone articulates with convex surface of another

Bending motion in one plane

Knee joint, elbow joint, joints of phalanges

Pivot

Conical surface of one bone articulates with depression of another

Rotation about a central axis

Atlantoaxial joint ; proximal radioulnar joint

Condyloid

Oval condyle of one bone articulates with elliptical cavity of another

Biaxial movement

Radiocarpal joint

Saddle

Concave and convex surface on each articulating bone

Wide range of movements

Carpometacarpal joint of thumb

Ball-and –socket

Rounded convex surface of one bone articulate with cuplike socket of another

Movement in all planes including  rotation

Shoulder and hip joints

 

Table 7.1 a comparison of muscle fiber types

Fiber characterstic

Fast-twitch fiber

Intermediate fiber

Slow-twitch fiber

Fiber size

Large

Intermediate

Small

Glycogen content

High

Intermediate

Low

Myosin AT pase

High

High

Low

Myoglobin content

Low

High

High

Energy system

Anaerobic

Combination

Aerobic

Twitch

Fast

Fast

Slow

Primary use

Speed and power

Moderate activity

Endurance

 

Table 7.2 a comparison of muscle fiber arrangements

Appearance of fibers

Types and characteristics

Examples

 

Parallel fiber arrangement

  • Strap like muscles with long excursions (contract over long distances)
  • Few motor units
  • Good endurance
  • Not especially strong
  • Relatively poor dexterity

Sartotius muscle, located along the anterior thigh region  rectus abdominis muscle, located along the anterior abdominal region

 

Convergent fiber arrangement

  • Fan-shaped muscles with moderate excursion
  • Few motor units
  • Moderate endurance
  • Fairly strong
  • Fairly dexterous

Pectoralis major muscle, located in anterior thoracic region temporalis muscle, located over the temporal bone

 

Pinnate fiber arrangement

  • Feather-shaped muscles with short excursins
  • Many motor units
  • Poor endurance
  • Especially strong
  • Excellent dexterity

Antebrachial muscles, located in antnerior forearm and act on the hand

Crural muscles, located in leg and act on the  foot                                          

 

Sphincter muscles

  • Fibers encircle a body orifice (opening )
  • Many motor units
  • Good endurance
  • Moderately strong
  • Good dexterity

Orbicualries oris muscle surrounding the mouth orbicularis oculi muscle surrounding  the eye

 

Table 8.1 examples of how muscle names are derived

Named according to :

Examples

Shape

Rhombideis (like a rhomboid); trapeius (like a trapezoid ); or, denothing the number or heads of  origin , biceps (two heads )

Location

Pectoralis (chest region or pectus); intercostals (between ribs); brachii(upper arm)

Attachment (s)

Zygomaticus, temporalis, sternocleidomastoid

Orientation

Rectus (straplike ); transverse (across)

Relative position

Lateralis, medialis, external

Function

Abductor, flexor, extensor, pronator

 

Table 8.2 examples of muscle actions (m. = muscle)

Action

Definition

Examples

Flexion

Decreases a joint angle

Biceps brachii m.

Extension

Increases a joint angle

Triceps brachii m.

Abduction

Moves anappendage away from the midline

Deltoid m.

Adduction

Moves an appendage toward the midline

Adductor longus m.

Elevation

Raises a body structure

Levator scapulae m.

Depression

Lowers a body structure

Depressor labii inferioris m.

Rotation

Turns a bone around its longitudinal axis

Sternocleidomastoid m.

Supinatio

Rotates the hand so that the palm faces interiorly

Supinator m.

Pronation

Rotates the hand so that the palm faces posteriorly

Poroinator teres m.

Inversion

Turns the sole inward

Tibialis anterior m.

Eversion

Turns the sole outward

Peroneus tertius m.

 

Table 8.3 muscles of facial expression

Facial muscle

Origin (s)

Insertion (s)

Action (s)

Frontalis

Galea aponeurotica

Skin of eye brow

Wrinkles forehead; elevates eye brow

occipitalis

Occipital bone and mastoid process

Galea aponeurotica

Moves scalp backward

corrugator

Fascia above eyebrow

Root of nose

Draws eyebrows toward midline, as in scowling

Orbicularis oculi

Bones of medial orbit

Tissue of eye lid

Closes eye, as in blinking

Nasalis

Maxilla and nasal bone

Aponeuroses of nose

Dilates nostrils

Orbicularis oris

Facia surrounding lips

Mucosa of lips

Closes and purses lips, as in kissing

Levator labii superioris

Maxilla andzygomatic bone

Orbicularis oris

Elevates upper lip, as exposing upper teeth

Zygomaticus

Zygomatic bone

Orbicularis oris at lateral part of upper lip

Elevates corners of mouth, as in smiling

 

Table 8.3 (continued ) muscles of facial expression

Facial muscle

Origin (s)

Insertion (s)

Action (s)

Risorius

Fascia of cheek

Orbicularis oris at corner of lips

Draws corner of mouth laterally

Depressor anguli oris

Mandible

Inferolateral oart of orbicularis oris

Depresses corner of mouth, as in frowning

Depressor labii inferioris

mandible

Orbicularis oris and skin of lower lip

Depresses lower lip, as in exposing lower teeth

Mentalis

Mandible (chin)

Orbicularis oris

Elevates and protrudes lower lip, as in pouting

Platysma

Fascia of neck and clavicle

Inferior border of mandible

Depressor lower lip; tenses skin of neck

Buccinator

Maxilla and mandible

Orbicularis  oris

Compresses cheek, as in sucking from a straw

 

Table 8.4 muscles of mastication

Chewing muscle

Origin (s)

Insertion (s)

Action (s)

Temporalis

Temporal fossa

Coronoid processs of mandible

Elevates jaw

Masseter

Zygomatic arch

Lateral ramis fo mandible

Elevates jaw

Medial pterygoid

Sphenoid bone

Medial ramis fo mandible

Depresses jaw; moves jaw laterally

Lateral pterygoid

Sphenoid bone and tuberosity of maxilla

Anterior side of mandibular condyle

Protracts jaw

 

Table 8.5 muscles of the neck

Neck muscle

Origin (s)

Insertion (s)

Action (s)

Sternocleidomastoid

Sternum and clavicle

Mastoid process of temporal bone

Flexex neck; turns head to side

Digastric

Inferior borderof mandible and mastoid process of temporal

Hyoid bone

Depresses jaw to open the mouth ; elevates hyoid bone

mylohyoid

Inferior border of mandible

Byoid bone and median raphe

Elevates byoid bone and floor of mouth

Stylohyoid

Styloid process of temporal bone

Hyoid bone

Elevates and retracts tongue

Hyoglossus

Hyoid bone

Side of tongue

Depresses side of tongue

sternohyoid

manubrium

Hyoid bone 

Depresses hyoid bone

Sternothyroid

Manubrium

Thyroid cartilage

Depresses thyroid cartilage

Thyrohyoid

Thyroid cartilage

Hyoid bone

Depresses hyoid bone; elevates thyroid cartilage

omohyoid

Superior border of scapula

Calvicle and hyoid bone

Depresses hyoid bone

 

Table 8.6 muscles of the abdominal wall

Abdominal muscle

Origin (s)

Insertion (s)

Action (s)

External abdominal oblique

Lower eight ribs

Lilac crest and linea alba

Compresses abdomen; lateral rotation

Internal abdominal oblique

Lilac crest, inguinal ligament, lumbar fascia, 

Linea alba and costal cartilages of last three or four ribs

Compresses abdomen; lateral rotation

Transverses abdominals

Lilac crest, inguinal ligament, lumbar fascia, costal cartilages of last six ribs

Xiphoid process, linea alba , pubis

Compresses abdomen

Rectus abdominis

Pubic crest and symphysis pubis

Xiphoid process and costaal cartilages of fifth to seventh ribs

Flexes vertebral column

 

Table 8.7 muscles of the vertebral column

Final muscle

Origin (s)

Insertion (s)

Action (s)

Quadratus lumborum

Lilac crest and lower three lumbar vertebrage

Twelfth rib and upper four lumbar

Extends lumbar region ; laterally flexes vertebral column

Lliocostalis limborum

Crest of liium

Lower six ribs

Extends lumbar region

Lliocostalis thoracis

Lower six ribs

Upper six ribs

Extends thoracic region

Lliocostalis cervicis

Angles of three to six ribs

Transverse processes of fourth to sixth cervical vertebrae

Extends cervical region

Longisssimis thoracis

Transverse processes of lumbar vertebrae

Lower ni me ribs and transferse processes of all the thoracic vertebrate

Extends thoracic region

Longissimus cervicis

Transverse processes of upper five thoracic vertebrae

Transverse processes of second to sixth cervical vertebrae

Extends cervical region

Longissimus capitis

Transverse processes of upper four of five thoracic vertebrae

Transverse processes of secondto sixth cervical vertebrae

Extends head; acting swparately,l turns face toward that side

Spinalis thoracis

Spinous processes of upper lumbar and lower thoracic vertebrae

Spinous processes of upper thoracic vertebrae

Extends vertebral column

 

Table 8.8 muscles that act on the pectoral girdle

Pectoral muscle

Origin (s)

Insertion (s)

Action (s)

Serratus anterior

Upper eight or nine ribs

Anterior medial border of scapula

Pulls scapula forward and downward

Pectoralis minor

Sternal ends of third, fourth, and fifth ribs

Coracoid process of scapula

Pulls scapula forward and downward

subclavius

First rib

Subclavian groove of clavicle

Draws clavicle downward

Trapezius

Occipital bone and spines fo cervicle, and thoracic vertebrae

Clavicle, acromion, and spine of scapula

Elevates, depresses, and adducts scapula; hyperextends neck; braces shoulder

Levator scapulae

First to fourth cervical vertebra

Superior border of scapula

Elevates scapula

Rhomboideus major

Spines of second to fifth thoracic vertebrae

Medial brder of scapula

Elevates and adducts scapula

Rhomboideus

Seventh cervical and first thoracic vertebrae

Medial border of scapula

Elevants and adducts scapula

 

Table 8.9 muscles that act on the brachium (arm)

Axial or scapular muscle

Origin(s)

Insertion (s)

Action (s)

Pectoralis major

Clavicle, sternum, costal cartilages of second to sixth ribs

Greater tubercle of humerus

Flexes, adducts, adnrotates humerus medially at shoulder joint

Latissimus dorsi

Spines of sacral, lumbar, and lower thoracic vertebrae ; lower ribs

Intertubercualr groove to umerus

Extends, adductsm and rotates humerus medially at shoulder joint; adducts arm

Deltoid

Clavicle, acromion, and spine of scapula

Deltoid tuberosity of humerus

Abducts arm; extends or flexes humerus at shoulder joint

Supraspinatus

Supraspinous fossa of scapula

Greater tubercle of humerus

Abducts and laterally rotates humerus at shoulder joint

Infraspinatus

Infraspinois fossa of scapula

Greater tubercle of humerus

Rotates arm laterally at shoulder joint

Teres major

Inferior angle and lateral border of scapula

Intertubnercualr groove of humerus

Esxtends , adducts, and rotates humerus medially at shoulder joint

Teres minor

Lateral border of scapula

Greater tubercle of humerus

Rotates humerus laterally at shoulder joint

Subscapularis

Subscapular fossa

Lesser tubercle of humerus

Rotates humerus medially at shoulder joint

Coracobrachialis

Coracoid process of scapula

Shaft of humerus

Flexes and adducts humerus at shoulder joint

 

Table 8.10 muscles that act on the Antebrachium (forearm)

Brachial muscle

Origin (s)

Insertion (s)

Action (s)

Biceps brachii

Coracoid process and tuberosity above glenoid fossa of scapula

Radial tuberosity

Flexes elbow joint; supinates forearm ad hand at elbow joint

Brachialis

Anterior shaft of humerus

Coronoid process of ulna

Flexes elbow joint

Brachioradialis

Lateral suprecondylar fidge of humerous

Proximal to styloid process of radius

Flexes elbow joint

Triceps brachii

Tuberosity below glenoid fossa and lateral and medial surfaces of humerus

Olecranon of ulna

Extends elbow joint

Anconeus

Lateral epicondyle of humerus

Olecranon of ulna

Extends elbow joint

 

Table 8.11 muscles  that act on the wrist, hand, and fingers

Antebrachial muscle

Origins (s)

Insertion  (s)

Action (s)

Supinator

Laterallepicondyle of humerus and crest of ulna

Lateral surface of radius

Supinates hand

Pronator teres

Medial epicondyle of hemerus

Lateral surface of radius

Pronates hand

Pronator quadratus

Distal fourth of ulna

Distal fourth of radius

Pronates hand

Flexor carpi radialis

Medial epicondyle of humerus

Base of second and third metacarpal bones

Flexes and abducts hand at wrist

Palmaris longus

Jediaol epicondyle of humerus

Palmar aponeurosis

Flexes wrist

Flexor carpi ulnaris

Jedial epicondyle of humerus and olecranon of ulna

Carpal and metacarpal bones

Flexes and aducts wrists

Flexor digitorum superficialis

Medial epicondyle  of humerus and coronoid process

Middle phalanges of digits II-V

Flexes wrist and digits

 

Table 8.11 (continued) muscles that act on the wrist, hand, and fingers

Flexor digitorum profundus

Proximal two-thirds of ulna and interosseous membrane

Distal phalanges of digits II-V

Flexes wrist and digits

Flexor pollicis longus

Shaft of radius coronoid process of ulna, interosseous membrane

Distal phalanx of thumb

Flexes joints of thumb

Extensor carpi radialis longus

Lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus

Second metacarpal bone

Extends alnd abducts wrist

Extensor carpi badialis brevis

Lateral epicondyle of humerus

Third metacarpal bone

Extends and abducts wrist

Extensor digitorum communis

Lateral epicondyle of humerus

Posterior surfaces of digits II-V

Extends wrist and phalanges

Extensor digiti minimi

Lateral epicondyle of humerus

Extendor aponeurosis of fifth digit

Extends joints of fifth digit and wrist

Extensor carpi ulnafis

Lateral condyle of humerus and olecranon of ulna

Base of fifth metacarpal bone

Extends and adducts wrist

Extensor pollicis longus

Lateromedial shaft of ulna

Base of distal phalanx of thumb

Extends joints of thumb abducts joints of hand

Extensor pollicis brevis

Distal shaft of radius and interosseous membrane

Base of first phalanx of thumb

Extends joints of thumb; abducts joints of hand

Abductor pollicis longus

Distal radius and ulna and interossepus membrane

Base of first metacarpal bone

Abducts joints of thumb and joints of hand

 

Table 8.12 anterior and posterior muscles that move the thigh at the hip joint

Pelvic muscle

Origin (s)

Insertion  (s)

Origin (s)

Lliacus

Lilac fossa

Lesser trochanter of femur along with psoas major

Flexes and rotates thigh laterally at the hip joint ; flexes joints of vertebral column

Psoas major

Thansverse process of lumbar vertebrae

Lesser trochanter of femur, along with iliotibial tract

Flexes and rotates thigh laterally at the hip joints; flexes joints of vertebral column

Gluteus maximus

Lilac crest, sacrum, coccyx, aponeurosis of lumbar region

Cluteal tuberosity and iliotibial tract

Extends and rotates thigh laterally at the hip joint

Gluteus medius

Lateral surface of ilium

Greater trochanter of femur

Abducts and rotates thigh medially at the hip joint

Gluteus minimus

Lateral surface of lower half of ilium

Greater trochanter of femur

Abducts and rotates thigh medially a the hip joint

Tensor fasciae latae (see fig. 8.16)

Anterior border of ilium and iliac crest

Lliotibial tract

Abducts thigh at the hip joint

 

Table 8.13 medial muscles that move the thigh at the hip joint

Adductor muscle

Origin (s)

Insertion (s)

Action (s)

Cracilis

Inferior edge fo symphysis pubis

Proximomedial surfaces of tibia

Adducts thigh at hip joint; flexes and rotates leg at knee joint

Pectineis

Pectineal line of pubis

Distal to lesser trochanter of femur

Adducts and flexes thigh at hip joint

Adductor longus

Pubis, below phbic crest

Linea aspera of femur

Adducts, flexes, and laterally rotates thigh at hip joint

Adductor brevis

Inferior ramus of pubis

Linea aspera of femur

Adducts, flexes, and laterally rotates thigh at hip joint

Adductor magnus

Inferior of ischium and inferior ramus of pubis

Linea aspera and medial epicondyle of femur

Adducts, flexes, and laterally rotates thigh at hip joint

 

Table 8.14 muscle of the thigh that act on the leg

Thigh muscle

Origin (s)

Insertion (s)

Action (s)

Sartorius

Anterior superior iliac spine

Medial surface of tibia

Flexes leg and thigh; abducts and rotates thigh laterally; rotates leg medially at hip joint

Quadriceps femoris

 

Patella by common tendon, which continues as patellar ligament to tibial tuberosity

Extends leg at knee joint

Rectus femoris

Anterior inferior iliac spine

 

 

Vastus lateralis

Greater trochanter and linea aspera of remur

 

 

Vastus medialis

Medial surface and linea aspera of femur

 

 

Vastus intermedius

Anterior and lateral surfaces of femur

Flexes leg at knee joint; extends and laterally rotates thigh at hip joint

 

Biceps femoris

Long head – ischial tuberosity; short head –linea aspera of femur

Head of fibula and lateral epicondyle of tibia

 

Semitendinosus

Ischial tuberosity

Proximal portion of medial surface of shaft of tibia

Flexes leg at knee joint; extends an medially rotates thigh at hip joint

Semimembranosus

Ischial tuberosity

Medial epicondyle of tibia

Flexes leg at knee joint; extends and medially rotates thigh at hip joint

 

Table 8.15 muscles of the leg that move the ankle, foot, and toes

Leg muscle

Origin (s)

Insertion (s)

Action (s)

Tibialis anterior

Lateral condyle and body of tibia

First metatarasal bone and first cuneiform bone

Dorsiflexes ankle; inverts foot and ankle

Extensor digitorum longus

Lateral condyle fo tibia alnd anterior surface of fibula

Extensor expansions of digits II-V

Extends digits II-V ; dorsiflexes foot at ankle

Extensor hallucis longus

Anterior surface of fibula and interosseous membrane

Digital phalanx of digit I

Extends joints of big toe; assists dorsiflextion of foot at ankle

Peroneus tertius

Anterior surface of fibula and interosseous  membrane

Dorsal surface of fifth metatarsal bone

Dorsiflexes and everts foot at ankle

Peroneus longus

Lateral condyle of tibia and head and shaft of fibula

First cuneiform and metatarsal bone I

Plantar flexes and everts foot at ankle

Peroneus brevis

Lower aspect of fibula

Metatarsal bone V

Plantar flexes and everts foot at ankle

Gastrocnemius

Lateral and medial condyle of femur

Posterior surface of calcaneous

Plantar flexes foot at amkle; flexes knee joint

Soleus

Posterior aspect of fibula and tibia

Calcaneous

Plantar flexes foot at ankle

Plantaris

Lateral supracondylar ridge of femur

Calcaneous

Pantar flexes foot at ankle

Popliteus

Lateral condyle of femur

Upper posterior aspect of tibia

Flexes and medially rotates leg at knee joint

Flexor hallucis longus

Posterior aspect of fibula

Distal phalanx of big toe

Flexes joint of distsal phalanx of big toe

Flexor digitorum longus

Posterior surface of tibia

Distal phalanges of digits II-V

Flexes joints of distal phalanx of digits II-V

Tibialis posterior

Tibia and fibula and interosseous membrane

Navicualr, cuneiform, cuboid, and metatarsal bones II-V

Plantar flexes and inverts foot at ankle ; supports arches of foot

 

Table 9.1 divisions and structures of the nervous system

Division/ structure

Description and location

Function

Central nervous system (CNS)

Brain within the cranium and the spinal cord within the vertebral canal

Prsponds to nerve impulses (sensations) from sensory nerves; body control center

Peripheral nervous system (PNS)

Composed of sensory, motor, or mixed nerves

Conveys Impulses to and from CNS

Autonomic nervous system (ANS)

Composed of specific structures of CNS and nerves of PNS; divided in to sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions

Exerts involuntary (autonomic ) control fo vital body functions including heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, digestion, body temperature, and so forth

Brain

Composed of gray and white matter within the cranium

Serves as control center for nervous system

Spinal cord

Composed of gray and white matter within the vertebral canal of the spinal column

Conveys messages (impulses) to and from brain; reflex center

Neuron

Cell within nervous tissue

Responds to stimuli and converys nerve impulses

Sensory (afferent ) neuron

 

Component ofa sensory or a mixed nerve within PNS

Transmits Impulses from sensory receptor to CNS

Motor (efferent ) neuron

Component of a motor or a mixed nerve within PNS

Transmits impulses from CNS to effecter organs (muscles or glands)

Neuroglium

Cell within nervous tissue

Supports neurons

Nerve

Bundle of nerve fibers within PNS

Conveys impulses

Tract

Bundle of nerve fibers within CNS

Interconnects structures of CNS; conveys impulses

Ganglion

Cluster of cell bodies of neurons within PNS

Serves as control centerfor a bundle of neurons

Nucleus

Cluster fo cell bodies fo fmeurons within  white matter of CNS

Serves as control center for a bundle of neurons

Nerve plexus

Network of nerves within PNS

Provides overlapping innervation (nerves supply) to certain body regions

 

By fiber diameter

Group

Diameter

Function

AA

12-20 µm

Proprioception

AB

5-12 µm

Pressure, touch

A¿

3-6 µm

Motor-nerve-muscle-spindle junctions

A σ

2-5 µm

Temperature, touch, pain

B

<3  µm

Preganglionic autonomic

C

0.3-1.3 µm

Postgantlionic sympathetic

 

Table 10.1 regions of the braon and their principal structures

Region

Structure

Function

Telencephalon

cerebrum

Control of most sensory and motor activities; reasoning, memory, intelligence, etc. instinctual and limbic (emotional function )

Diencephalon

Thalamus

Relay center; all umpulses (except olfactory) going in to cerebrum synapse here

Hypothalamus

Regulation of urine formation, body temperature, hunger, heartbeat, etc, control of secretory activity in anterior  pituitary ; instinctural an limbic functions

 

Pituitary gland

Regulation of other endocrine glands

 

Mesencephalon

Superior colliculus

Visual reflexes

Inferior colliculus

Auditory reflexes

Cerebral peduncles

Coordinating reflexes; contain many motor fibers

Metencephalon

cerebellum

Balance and motor coordination

Pons

Relay center; contains respiratory nuclei

Myelencephalon

Medulla oblongata

Relay center ; contains many nuclei; visceral autonomic center (eg. Respiration, heart rate, vasoconstriction )

 

Table 10.2 the cerebral lobes and their functions

Cerebral lobes

Functions

Frontal lobe

Voluntary motor control of skeletal muscles; personality (with limbic system); intellectual process (eg. Concentration, planning, decision making ); verbal communication

Parietal lobe

Soma esthetic interpretation (e.g. cutaneous and muscular sensations); understanding and utterance of speech

Temporal lobe

Interpretation of auditory sensations auditory and visual memory

Occipital lobe

Integration of movements in focusing the eye ; correlation of visual images with previous visual experiences and other sensory stimuli ; conscious seeing

Insular

Memory; integration of other cerebral activities

 

Table 10.3 principal neurotransmitters of the brain

Neurotransmitter

Function

Acetylcholine

Facilitates transmission of nerve impulses across synapses

Epinephrine, norepinephrine

Arouse the brain and maintain alertness

Serotonin

Temperature regulation, sensory perception, onset of sleep

Dopamine

Motor control

Gamma-amminobytyric acid (GABA)

Motor coordination through inhibition of certain ceurons

Glycine

Inhibits transmisssioi along crtain spinal cord tracts

Enkephalins, endorphins

Block transmission and perception of pain

Substance P

Aids in transmission of impulses from pain receptors

 

Table 11.1 the cranial nerves

Cranial nerve

Type

Pathways

Functions

I olfactory

Sensory

From olfactory epithelium to olfactory bulb

Smell

II optic

Sensory

From retina of eye to thalamus

Sight

III oculomotor

Motor; proprioceptive

From mudbrain to four eye muscles; from ciliary body to midbrain

Movement of eye and eyelid ; focusing; change in pupil size; muscle sense

IV trochlear

Motor proprioceptive

From midbrain to superior oblique muscle; from eye muscle to midbrain

Movement of eye muscle sense

V trigeminal

Mixed

Froms pons to muscles of mastication ; from cornea, facial skinl lips , tongue, and teeth to pons

Chewing of food; sensations from organs of the face

VI abducens

Motor ; proprioceptive

From pons to lateral rectus muscle; from eye muscle to pons

Movenent of eye muscle; sense

VII facial

Mixed

From pons to facial muscles; from facial muscles and taste buds to pons

Movement of face; secretion of saliva and tears; muscle sensel; taste

VIII vestibule

cochlear

Sensory

Froim prgans of hearing and balance to pons

Hearing; balance and posture

IX gloss – pharyngeal

Mixed

From medulla oblongata to pharyngeal muscles; from pharyngeal muscles and taste buds to medulla oblongata

Swallowing, secretion of saliva; muscle sense; taste

 

X vagus

Mixed

From medulla oblongata to viscera; from viscera to medulla

Visceral muscle movement ; visceral sensations

XI accessory

Motor; proprioceptive

From medulla oblongata to pharynx and neck muscles; from neck muscles to medulla

Swallowing and head movement ;’ muscle sense

XII hypoglossal

Motor; proprioceptive

From medulla oblongata to muscles of the fongue; from tongue muscles to medulla

Speech and swallowing ; muscle sense

 

Table 11.2 a comhparison of the autonomic and somatic nervous systems

Autonomic

Somatic

Functions automatically, generally without conscious awareness

Conscious or voluntary regulation

Fibers synapse once (at a ganglion )

After they leave the CNS:

Fibers do not synapse after they leave the CNS:

Effector cells can be either stimulated or inhibited

Effects on skeletal miscle fibers always stimulatory

 

Table 11.3 a comparison of the sypatheeic and parasympathetic divisions of the ANS

Feature

Sympathetic division

Parasympathetic division

Orginof preganglioic fibers

Thoracloumbar nerves

Craniosacral nerves

Location of ganglia

Far from visceral effector organs (see problem 11.19)

Near or within visceral effector organs

Neurotransmitter substances

In ganglia, acretylcholine; in effector organs, norepinephrine

In ganglia, acetylcholine, in effector organs, acetylcholine

 

Table 11.14 types of norepinephrine receptors

Receptor subtype

Location

Effects of stimulation

 

Smooth muscle

Vasoconstriction, uterine contraction, dilation of pupil, intestinal sphincter contraction , arrector pili contraction

 

Axon terminals of postganglionic adrenergic neurons

Negative feedback : norepinephrine acts to inhibit its own further release

 

Heart

Changes in rate and force of heart contraction

 

Smooth muscle

Vasodilation, uterine relaxation, intestinal relaxation, bronchodilation, glycogenolysis

 

Table 11.15 a comparison of sympathetic an parasympathetic activity

Organ or gland

Sympathetic (adrenergic or cholinergic ) stimulation

Parasympathetic (cholinergic ) stimulation

Heart

Increased rate and strength of contraction

Decreased rate and strength of contraction

Skin

Vasoconstriction (adrenergic); vasodilation, blushing (cholinergic )

None

Skeletal muscles

Vasoconstriction(adrenergic); vasodilation (cholinergic )

None

Blood vessels

Mostly constriction

Dilation in a few organs (e.g. penis )

Viscera

Vasoconstriction (adrenergic to abdominal viscera )

Vasodilatation (abdominal viscera )

Reproductive organs

Vasodilatioi (cholinergic to external genitalia )

Vasodialtion (external genitalia )

Hair (arrector pili muscle )

Contraction and erectio of hair,” goose bumps”

None

Bronchioles

Dilation

Constriction

GI tract

Decreased activity and tone

Increased activity (peristalsis) and tone

Gallbladder and ducts

Inhibition

Stimulation

Anal sphincter

Closing stimulated

Closing inhibited

Urinary bladder

Muscle tone aided

Contraction

Ciliary muscle of eye

Relaxation ( for far vision )

Contraction (for near vision )

Iris of eye

Dilation of pupil

Constriction of pupil

Sweat glands

Stimulation of secretion ( cholinergic )

None

Nasal, lacrimal, salivary, gastric, intestinal, and pancreatic glands

Vasoconstriction and inhibited secretion

Vasodilatio and stimulated secretion

Pancreatic islets

Decreased secretion of insulin

Increased secretion

Liver

Stimulation of glycogen hydrolysis with release of glucose in to blood

None

Adrenal medulla

Increased secretion of norepinephrine and epinephrine (which increase heart rate, blood pressure, blood sugar )

None

 

Table 13.1 the principal endocrine glands and their secretions

Gland

Hormones

Pituitary gland

 

 

 

 

 

Adenohypophysis (anterior pituitary)

 

 

 

 

 

Human growth hormone (HGH or GH ) thyrous stimulalting hormone (TSH) adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) prolactin (PRL) follicle stimuating hormone (FSH) luteinizing hormone (LH)

Neurohypoiphysis

(posterior pituitary)

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) oxytocin

Thyroid gland

Thyroxine (T4)

Triiodothyronine (T3)

Calcitonin

Parathyroid glands

Parathyroid hormone (PTH)

 

 

Aderenal gland

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Adrenal cortex

 

 

Cortisol

Corticosterone (glucocorticoids)

Aldosterone

Deoxycorticosterone (mineralocorticoids)

Adrenal medulla

Epinephrine and norepinephrine

 

 

Pancreas

Insulin

Glucagons

Testes

Testosterone (an androgen)

Ovaries

Estradiol (an estrogen)

Progesterone

       

 

Table 13.2 secretory cells of the anterior pituitary

Category

Stain

Hormone

Acidophils

Acidic stain

Human growth hormone (HGH) and prolactin (PRL)

Basophils

Basic stain

Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), follicle –stimulating hormone (FSH), andluteinnizing hormone (LH)

Chrommophobes

Stain-resistant

Sdrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

 

Table 13.3 summary of the pituitary hormones

Source cell

Hormone

Target tissue

Effect

Somatotrophs

HGH

Bones; soft tissue

Accelerates rate of body growth, stimulates uptake fo amino acids in to cells and protein syntheisis; promotes carbohydrate and fat breakdown

Thryrotrophs

TSH

Thyroid gland

Promotes growth and development of thyroid gland ; stimulates synthesis and release of thyroid hormones

Corticotrophs

ACTH

Adrenal cortex

Promotes growth and development of adrenal cortex; stimulates scretio of glucocorticoids

Lactotrophs

PRL

Mammary glands

Promotes development of mammary glands; stimulates milk production

Gonadotrophs

FSH

Ovaries and testes

Female; stimulates growth of ovarian follicles

Male; stimulates spermatogenesis

Luteotrophs

LH

Ovaries and testes

Female; stimulates maturatioof follicle cells, promotes ovulation and development of corpus luteum, and stimulates corpus luteum to secrete estrogens and progesterone

Male: stimulates interstitial cells to secretes testosterone

Supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus

ADH

 

 

 

 

 

Oxytocin

Kidney tubules

 

 

 

 

 

Mammary glands and uterus

Facilitates water reabsorption in the distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts

 

Stimulates contraction of uterine muscles; stimulates secretion of milk from the breast

 

Table 13.4 function of the amine hormones epinephrine and Norepinephrine

Epinephrine

Norepinephrine

Elevates blood pressure by increased cardiac output and peripheral vasoconstriction

Elevates blood pressure through generalized vasoconstriction

Accelerates respiratory rate and dilates respiratory passageways

Similar effect, but less marked

Increases effiency of muscular contraction

Similar effect, but less marked

Increases rate of glycogen breakdown in to glucose, so level of blood glucose rises

Similar effect, but less marked

Increases conversion of fats to fatty acids, so level of blood fatty acids rises

Similar effect, but less marked

Increases release of ACTH and TSH from the adenohypophysis

No effect

 

Table 13.5 other endocrine organs

Organs

Description /location

Endocrine function

Thymus

Bilobed organ positioned in the upper mediastinum, in front of the aorta and behind the manubrium of the sternum

Secretes the hormone thymosin, which stimulates T-lymphocyte activity

Pineal gland

Small, cone-shaped gland located in the roof of the  third ventricle, near the corpora quadrigemina

Secretes the hormone melatonin. Which affects the secretion of gonadotropins and ACTH from the anterior pituitary

Gastric mucosa

Epithelial cells lining the stomach ; G cells in the glandular walls

G cells secrete gastrin, which stimulates gastric juice secretion and gastric motility

Duodenal mucosa

Epithelial cells in the upper part of the small intestine

Secretes secretion, which stimulates secretion of pancreatic juice rich in bicarbonate, and cholecystokinin, which stimulates secretion of pancreatic juice rich in enzymes

Placenta

Vascular reddish –brown oval structure in the pregnant uterus

Secretes human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), human somatomammatropin (hCS), estrogens, and progesterone

 

Table 14.1 a summary of the various anemias

Type

Cause

Symptoms

Treatment

hemorrhagic

Blood loss

shock

Transfusion

Aplastic

Bone marrow destruction by drugs, chemicals, or radiation

Fatigue and susceptibility to infection (WBCs also affected )

Transfusion; removal of chemical or irradiator

Nutritional

Deficiency in folic acid, vitamin B12, or iron

If any, fatigue; neurological deficits

Folic acid, vitamin B12 or iron administration

Hemolytic

Increased destruction of RBCs

If any, fatigue, and jaundice

Various

 

Table 14.2 substances needed for erythrocyte production

Substance

Function

Protein

Cell membrane structure

Lipid

Cell membrane structure

Amino acid

Globin portion of hemoglobin

Iron

Incorporated in to hemoglobin

Vitamin B12

DNA synthesis

Folic acid

DNA synthesis

Copper

Catalyst for hemoglobin synthesis

Cobalt 

Aids in hemoglobin  synthesis

 

Table 14.3 a comparison of the five types of leukocytes

Type

Avg, No./ mm3

Origin

Description

Function

Neutrophils

5400

Bone marrow

Lobed nucleus, fine granules

Phagocytosis

Eosinophils

275

Bone marrow

Lobed nucleus, red or yellow granules

May phagocytize antigen-antibody complexes

Basophils

35

Bone marrow

Obscure nucleus, large purple granules

Release heparin, histamine, and serotonin

Lymphocytes

(B, cells, T cells)

2750

Lymphoid tissues

Round nucleus little cytoplasm, little cytoplasm

Produce antibodies, destroy specific target cells

Monocytes

540

Lymphoid tissues

Kidney-shaped nucleus

phagocytosis

 

Table 15.1 layers of the heart

Layer

Structure

Function

Epicardium (visceral pericardium)

Serous membrane of connective tissue, covered with epithelium and including blood capillaries, lymph capillaries, and nerve fibers

Lubricative outer covering

myocardium

Cardiac muscle tissue, separated by connective tissues and including blood capillaries, lympth capillaries, and nerve fibers

Contractile layer to eject blood from heart chambers

endocardium

Epithelial membrane and connective tissues, including elastic and collagenous fibers, blood vessels and specialized muscle fibers

Strengthened protective inner lining of the chambers and valves

 

Table 15.2 valves of the heart

Valve

Location

Structure and function

Tricuspid valve

Between right atrium and right ventricle

Composed of three cusps that prevent a backflow of blood from the right ventricle in to the right atrium during ventricular contraction

Pulmonary sumelunar valve

Between right ventricle and pulmonary trunk

Composed of three half-moon shaped flaps that prevent a backflow of blood from the pulmonary trunk in to the right ventricle during ventricular relaxation

Bicuspid (mitral) valve

Between left atrium and left ventricle

Composed of two cusps that prevent a backflow of blood from the left ventricle to the left atrium during ventricular contraction

Aortic sumilunar valve

Between left ventricle and ascending aorta

Composed of three half-moon-shaped flaps that prevent a backflow of blood from the aorta in to the left ventricle during ventricular contraction

 

Table 15.3 placement of stethoscope to hear sounds of heart valves

Heart valve

Stethoscope position

Tricuspid valve

5th intercostal space at sternum

Bicuspid (mitral )valve

5th intercostal space inferior to left nipple

Pulmonary semi lunar valve

2nd intercostal space left of sternum

Aortic semi lunar valve

2nd intercostal space right of sternum

 

Table 16.1 a comparison of vessels in the cardiovascular system

Vessel

Structure

Function

Artery

Strong, elastic vessel consisting of three tunics; lumen diameter large relative to wall thickness

Distributive channel to body tissues; blood carried under high pressure (muscular wall and large lumen minimize pressure drop)

Arteriole

Thick layer of smooth muscle in tunica media; relatively narrow lumen

Alters diameter to control blood flow, dampens pulsate flow to a steady flow

Capillary

Wall composed of a single layer of endothelium (tunica interna); smooth muscle cuff(precapillary sphincter) at its origin regulates blood flow

Allows exchange of fluids, nutrients, and gases between the blood and the interstitial fluids

Vein

Thin, distensible vessel consisting of three tunics; lumen diameter very large; valves present

 

 

Table 16.2 arteries arising from the thoracic aorta

Artery

Region or organ served

Pericardial arteries

Pericardium surrounding the heart

Intercostal arteries

Thoracic wall (muscles of rib cage )

Bronchial arteries

Right  and left bronchus

Esophageal arteries

Esophagus

Superior phrenic arteries

diaphragm

 

Table 16.3 arteries arising from the abdominal aorta

Artery

Region or organ served

Inferior phrenic arteries

Diaphragm

Celiac trunk

 

Hepatic artery

Liver, upper pancreas, duodenum

Splenic artery

Spleen, pancreas, stomach

Left gastric artery

Stomach, esophagus

Superior mesenteric artery

Small intestine, pancreas, cecum, appendix, ascending colon, transverse colon

Suprarenal arteries

Adrenal (suprarenal ) glands

Renal arteries

Adrenal (suprarenal) glands

Gonadal arteries (testicular; ovarian)

Gonads (testes and ovaries)

Inferior  mesenteric artery

Transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum

Common iliac arteries

Transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum

External iliac arteries

Lower extremities

Internal iliac arteries

Reproductive organs, gluteal muscles

 

Table 17.1 the ABO  antigen system of blood

Genotype

Blood group

Antigens (agglutinogens)

Antibodies (agglutinins )

OA or AA

A

A

Anti-B

OB or BB

B

B

Anti-A

AB

AB

A and B

None

OO

O

None

Anti-B and Anti-B

 

Table 17.2 preferred and permissible blood types for transfusion reaction ?

            (AB= universal recipient ; O = universal donor )*

Recipients blood type

Preferred donors blood type

Permissible donors blood type

A

A

O

B

B

O

AB

AB

A,B, O

O

O

(only O)

 

Table 19.1 Location of organs & their function

Organs or regions

Function

Oral cavity

Ingests food ; grinds food and mixes it with saliva (mastication ) ;initiates digestion of carbohydrates; forms bolus (food mass) ; swallows bolus (deglutition)

pharynx

Receives bolus from oral cavity; autonomic ally continues deglutition of bolus to esophagus

Esophagus

Transports bolus to stomach by peristalsis; esophageal sphincter restricts backflow of food

stomach

Receives bolus from esophagus; churns bolus with gastric juice to from chime; initiates digestion fo proteins; carries out limited absorption; moves chime in to duodenum and prohibits backflow

Small intestine

Receives chime from stomach, along with bile from lover and panchreatic juice from pancreas; chemically and mechanically breaks down chime; absorbs nutrients; transports wastes through peristalisis to large intestine; prohibits backflow of intestinal wastes from large intestine

Large intestine

Receives undigested wastes from small intestine; absorbs water and electrolytes; forms and stores feces and expels fecal matter through defecation

 

Table 19.2 tunics of the GI tract

Tunic

Location and structure

Function

Mucosa

Innermost tunic bordering the lumen of the GI tract; simple columnar epithelium with goblet cells

Secretion and absorption

Submucosa

Tunic below the mucosa; highly vascular and autonomically innervated

Absorption of nutrients and fluids in to capillaries

Muscularis

Tunic below the submucosa ; circular and longitudinal layers of smooth muscle ; modified in certain locations for sphincters or valves

Segmental contractions and peristalsis

adventitia

Outermost tunic covered with viscera peritoneum (serosa) ; loose connective tissue

Binding and protection

 

Table 19.3 the salivary glands

Salivary gland

Location

Salivary duct

Entry in to oral cavity

Type of secretion

Parotid gland

Anteroinferior to auricle of ear; subcutaneous over masseter muscle

Parotid duct

Lateral to upper second molar

Watery serous fluid containing salts and enzymes

Submandibular gland

Inferior to base of tongue

Submandibular duct

At papilla, lateral to lingual frenulum

Watery serous fluid containing some mucus

Su8blingual gland

Anterior to submandibular gland under the tongue

Several small sublingual ducts

With sub-mandibular duct

Mostly thick, stringy mucus containing salts and enzymes

 

Table 19.4 secretory products of the stomach

Component

Source

Function

Hydrochloric acid (HCL)

Parietal cells

Strong acid for killing pathogens; conversion of pepsinogen to pepsin

Pepsinogen

Chief cells

Inactive form of pepsin

Pepsin

Formed from pepsinogen in presence of HCL

Protein –splitting enzyme

Mucus

Goblet cells

Viscous, alkaline, protective coating of mucosa

Intrinsic factor

Parietal cells

Aids absorption of vitamin B12

Serotonin and histamine

Argentaffin cells

Autocrine regulator

Gastrin

G cells

Stimulates secretion of HCL and pepsin

 

Table 19.5 intestinal enzymes and their actions

Enzyme

Action

Peptidase

Converts proteins into amino acids

Sucrase (maltase and lactase )

Converts disaccharides in to monosaccharides

Lipase

Converts fats into fatty acids and glycerol

Amylase

Converts starch and glycogen in to disaccharides

Nuclease

Converts nuclei acids in to nucleotides

Enterokinase

Activates trypsin secreted from the pancreas

 

 

Table 20.1 hormones that affect metabolism

 

Hormone

Metabolic effects

Insulin

Promotes glucose uptake into cells ; promotes glycongenesis; promotes lipogenesis and indibits lipolysis; promotes amino-acid uptake in to cells; promotes protein synthesis

Glucagons and epinephrine

Promotes glycogenolysis; promotes gluconeogenesis; promotes protein synthesis

Thyroxine

Promotes glycogenolysis; promotes gluconeogenesis; promotes lipolysis

Growth hormone

Promotes amino-acid uptake in to cells; promotes protein synthesis; promotes glycogenolysis; promotes lipolysis

cortisol

Promotes glyconeogenesis; promotes lipolysis; promotes the breakdown of proteins

Testosterone

Promotes protein synthesis

 

Table 20.2 the essential vitamins

Vitamin

Dietary sources

Major body

Deficiency syndrome

Vitamin A (retinol)

Green vegetables, carrots, sweet potatoes

Synthesis of rhodopsin

Night blindness; skin disorders

Vitamin B1  (thiamine )

Meats, grains, legumes

Coenzyme in cellular respiration

Peripheral nerve changes; beriberi

Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)

Meats, leafy vegetables

Component of FAD

Lesions of lios, mouth, and tongue

Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine)

Meats, grains, vegetables

Coenzyme in amino acid metabolism

Lrritability ; muscle twitching; seizures

Vitamin B12 (cobalamine)

Meats, eggs, dairy products

Coenzyme in nucleic acid metabolism

Pernicious anemia; nervous disorders

Niacin

Meats, grains, legumes

Component of NAD

Pellagra(lesions in skin and GI tract ); nervous disorders

Pantothenic acid

Widely distributed in foods

Compone4nt of coenzyme A

None, except in controlled lab situations

Biotin

Meats, legumes, vegetables

Component of coenzyme

No serious problems

Folic acid

Green vegetables, grains

Coenzyme in nucleic acid metabolism

Anemia; diarrhea

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid )

Citrus fruits, tomatoes, leafy  vegetables, broccoli

Formation fo intercellular material in connective tissues

Scurvy

Vitamin D (cholecal -ciferol)

Egg yolks, fortified milk

Growth of bones; absorption of calcium

Rickets in children ; osteomalacia in adults

Vitamin E (Tocopherol)

Seed  oils, widely distributed in foods

Antioxidant to prevent damage to cell membranes

Anemia (in premature infants)

Vitamin K (phylloquin-one )

Meats, fruits, leafy vegetable

Synthesis of clotting factors

Hemorrhage

 

 Table 20.3 the essential minerals

Mineral

Dietary sources

Major body functions

Deficiency syndrome

Calcium

Eggs, dairy  products vegetables

Formation of bones and teeth; clotting; nervwe and muscel activity ; many cellular functions

Rickets; tetany; osteroporosis

Chlorine

Table salt, most foods

Water-electrolyte balance; acid-base balance; formation of HCL in stomach

Fluid imbalance

Cobalt

Most foods

Component of vitamin B12

Anemia

Copper

Most foods

Synthesis of hemoglobin; component of enzyme involved in melanin formation

Anemia

Fluorine

Seafoods, drinking water

Component of bones, teeth, and other tissues

Dental caries

Iodine

Sea food, table salt

Component of thyroid

Hypothyroidism

Iron

Meat, egg yolks, negumes, nuts, cereals

Component of hemoglobin, myoglobin, and cytochromes

Anemia

magnesium

Many foods

Bone formation ; nerve and muscle function

Tetany

Mangaese

Meats

Activation of several enzymes; reproduction ; lactation

Infertility

Phosphorus

Meats, diary products, fish, poultry

Formation of bone sand teeth; component of buffer system and nucleic acids

Weakness

Potassium

Meats, bananas, seafoods, milk

Nerve conduction; electrolyte balance

Skeletal and cardiac muscle weakness

Sodium

Most foods, table salt

Nerve conduction; electrolyte balance

Cramps; weakness dehydration

Zinc

Most foods

Component of several enzymes

Reduced growth; hair loss; vomiting

 

Table 21.1 renal handling of different substances

Substance

Kg/day filtered

Kg/day excreted

Percentage reabsorbed

Water

180.00

1.8

99%

Glucose

0.180

0.180

100%

Sodium

0.630

0.0032

99.5%

Urea

0.056

0.028

50%

 

Table 22.1 factors that determine the percentage of total body water

Age

Body water constitutes 75% to 80% of the body weight in infants and children. This percentage decresases with age; in elderly people body water may constitute only 40% to 50% of the total body weight

Sex

Women usually have less body water than men because the greater proportion of adipose tissue in women contains lesser amounts of water than other tissue types.

Weight

Obese people have less body water because of an abundance of adipose tissue.

 

 Table 22.2 mean concentrations of important body fluid solutes

Fluid

Na+

K+

Ca+

Mg2+

Cl-

Amino acid

Glucose mg%

Extra cellular

142

4

5

3

103

5

90

Intracellular

10

140

1

58

4

40

0-20

 

Compartment volume (ml) = quantity of substance introduced (mg)                                                                                                                       

                        Substance conc. In compartment (mg/ml)

Compartment

Substances used

Total

3H2O (radioactive water), antipyrine

Extracelluar

Thiosulfate, insulin

Blood plasma

Evans blue

 

Water intake

Water output

 

Ingested liquids

1400ml

Urine

1500ml

Solid and semisolid

800

Skin

500

Oxidation of food

300

Feces

150

 

2500

 

2500

 

Table 23.1 reproductive events and conditions

Event/ condition

Definition

Puberty

Period of development when the reproductive organs become functional

Menstruation

Discharge of blood and tissue (menses) from the uterus at the end of the monthly female reproductive cycle

Ovulation

Rupture of an ovarian (graafian) follicle, with the release of an ovum

Erection

Engorgement of erectile (vascular ) tissue of reproductive organs with blood

Ejaculation

The forceful discharge fosemen from the erect penis of the male

Fertility

The capacity to conceive (gravid ovum) or to induce conception (viable spermatozoan)

Pregnancy

The condition in which a female is carrying a developing offspring within her body

Gestation

Period of development of the conceptus I the uterus from the time of fertilization of the ovum until birth

Parturition

Childbirth ; accompanied by a series of uterine contractions known as labor

Lactation

Production and secretion of milk from the mammary glands

Menopause

The end of a woman’s reproductive capabilities; termination of ovulation marked by the cessation of menstrual periods

 

Table 23.2 organs of the male reproductive system

Organs (s)

Description and location

Function

Testes

Primary sex organs; posterior to the penis within the scrotum

Produce spermatozoa (gametes) and testosterone (male sex hormone)

scrotum

Pouch of skin; posterior to the penis

Encloses and protects testes

Epididymides

Mass of tubules attached to the posterior surface of the testes

Site of sperm maturation; store spermatozoa

Ductus (vas) differentia

Ducts extending from the epididymides to the ejaculatory ducts

Store spermatozoa; transport spermatozoa during ejaculation

Prostate

Walnut-sized  gland at the bae of the urinary bladder; surrounding the prostatic urethra

Secretes alkaline fluid that helps neutralize acidic environment of the vagina; enhances motility of spermatozoa

Seminal vesicles

Club-shaped glands posterior to the prostate, attached to the ejaculatory ducts

Secrete alkaline fluid containing nutrients and prostaglandins

Bulbourethral glands

Pea-sized glands inferior to the prostate; empty in to the membranous urethra

Secrete fluid that lubricates urethra and end of penis

Ejaculatory

Short ducts between the ducts differentia and the prostatic urethra

Receive spermatozoa and additives to produce seminal fluid

Penis

Pendant organ anterior to the scrotum and attached to the pubis

Convey urine and seminal fluid to outside fo body; organ of coitus.

 

Table 23.3 organs of the female reproductive system

Organs (s)

Description and location

Function

Ovaries

Primary sex organ; upper pelvic cavity on both lateral sides fo uterus

Produce of ova (gametes ) and female sex hormones

Uterine tubes (fallopian tubes )

Open-ended tubes that extend from the ovaries to the uterus

Convey ova toward uterus; site of fertilization; convey developing blastocyst to uterus

Uterus

Hollow, musculomembranous organ shaped like an inverted pear; maintained in position within the pelvic cavity by muscles and ligaments

Site fo uimplantation; sustains life of embryo and fetus during pregnancy; plays active role in parturition

Vagina

Hollow, musculomembranous organ positioned between the urinary bladder and urethra anteriorly and the rectum posteriorly

Conveys uterine secretion to outside of body; breceives erect penis and semen during coitus; passageway for fetus during parturition

Labia majora

Two longitudinal folds of skin that extend from the mons pubis to the perineum; separated longitudinally by the pudendal cleft

Form margins of pudendal cleft; enclose and protect other external reproductive organs

Labia minora

Two longitudinal folds of skin medial to the labia majora; separated longitudinally by the vaginal vestibule

Forms  margins of vestibule; protect openings of vagina and urethra

Clitoris

Rounded projection at the upper part of the pudendal cleft, sheathed by a prepuce

Provides feeling of pleasure during sexual stimulation

Vestibular glands

Subcutaneous within the wall of the vaginal opening

Secrete lubricating fluid in to the vestibule and vaginal opening during coitus

Mammary glands

Composed of lobes within the breasts

Produce and secrete milk for nourishment of an infant.

Recent post from blog

iBiokaare Online courses

AIPMT BIOLOGY-XI & xii
AIPMT PHYSICS-XI & XII
AIPMT CHEMISTRY-XI & xii
AIIMS BIOLOGY-XI & xii
AIIMS pHYSICS-XI & xII
AIIMS CHEMISTRY-XI & xii
CBSE Board-XI & xii
ChSE Board-XI & XII
NCERT BIOLOGY-XI & XII
cRASH COURSE
M.Sc BIOLOGY

Quick Links

Home
courses
Aipmt Question
Purchase
Live Class
Contact
BOARD QUESTION CHSE-XI
BOARD QUESTION CHSE-XII
BOARD QUESTION CBSE-XI
BOARD QUESTION CBSE-XII
SHOPPING

Contact Us

iBioKaare
Bhubaneswar
Odisha
India
751002
Phone: 9438559863
                : 8895649383
ibiokaare@gmail.com